The trade comes five days after Broxton was designated for assignment by the Mets.
Broxton told reporters last week that he was “surprised” by his lack of playing time with the Mets, who acquired the five-year veteran in an offseason trade with the Milwaukee Brewers.
Broxton, 29, batted just .143 (7-for-49) in 34 games with the Mets.
“I haven’t been playing too much,” Broxton told reporters last Wednesday. “I haven’t gotten as many opportunities.”
The Orioles acquired Broxton amid a series of roster moved before Wednesday’s game against the New York Yankees.
Baltimore transferred right-hander Alex Cobb to the 60-day injured list and designated right-hander Yefry Ramirez for assignment.
The Orioles also claimed right-hander Chandler Shepherd off waivers from the Chicago Cubs and optioned him to Triple-A Norfolk.